Glossary of Terms in Protection and Automation

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Acronym

Symbol

Term

 

Source

 

Definition

 

IEC 61850 EquivalentComments/References
3 IEEE C37.2 Checking or interlocking relay CILO  
14 IEEE C37.2 Zero speed and under speed PZSU  
21 IEEE C37.2 Distance relay PDIS PSCH IEC uses one instance per zone to build line-protection schemes 
21 CIGRE TB 463 Distance relay PDIS PSCH Z< 
24 IEEE C37.2 Volts per Hz PVPH  
24 CIGRE TB 463 Over-excitation (Volts per Hertz) relay PVPH U/f 
25 IEEE C37.2 Synchronism-check RSYN  
27 CIGRE TB 463 Under-voltage relay PTUV U< 
27 IEEE C37.2 (Time) Under voltage PTUV U< 
32 IEEE C37.2 Directional power / reverse power PDOP or PDUP Directional over power Directional underpower Reverse power modeled by PDOP plus additional mode “reverse” 
32 CIGRE TB 463 Directional power (Low forward power) relay PDPRP< 
37 IEEE C37.2 Undercurrent / underpower PTUC PDUP Undercurrent Underpower 
37 CIGRE TB 463 Under-current or under-power relay  X< 
40 IEEE C37.2 Loss of field /Under excitation PDUP Directional underpower 
40 CIGRE TB 463 Field (over/under excitation) relay; loss of field  I< 
46 CIGRE TB 463 Reverse-phase or phase-balance current (-ve phase sequence) relay  I2
49 CIGRE TB 463 Machine or transformer thermal (thermal overload) relay  I2
50 CIGRE TB 463 Instantaneous overcurrent relay PIOC I> 
51 CIGRE TB 463 AC inverse time overcurrent relay PTOC I> 
59 CIGRE TB 463 Overvoltage relay PTOV U> 
60 CIGRE TB 463 Voltage or current balance (fuse failure) relay  ΔU 
67 CIGRE TB 463 AC directional overcurrent relay PTOC I>® 
78 CIGRE TB 463 Phase angle measuring (Out of step [IWD:pole slip]) relay  dZ/dt 
89 IEEE C37.2 Circuit switcher, isolating switch XSWI  
16EC IEEE C37.2 Security processing function - see also 16SC VPN, encryption module, etc. 
16EF  IEEE C37.2 Firewall  Or message filtering function 
16EM  IEEE C37.2 Network managed function  (e.g., configured via SNMP) 
16ER  IEEE C37.2 Router   
16ERFCM  IEEE C37.2 Ethernet router with firewall, VPN for secure communications   
16ES IEEE C37.2 Ethernet Switch - see also 16SS  
16ESM  IEEE C37.2 Ethernet managed switch   
16SC  IEEE C37.2 Security processing function - see also 16EC VPN, encryption module, etc. 
16SCT  IEEE C37.2 Serial encrypting modem   
16SS  IEEE C37.2 Dial-up port Switch - see also 16ES  
16ST  IEEE C37.2 Auto-answer modem or telephone switch   
32R  CIGRE TB 463 Reverse power relay  -P> 
51N  CIGRE TB 463 AC inverse time neutral overcurrent (zero phase sequence) relay PTOC In> 
51V  CIGRE TB 463 Voltage controlled / dependant time overcurrent relay  I(U)> 
59N  CIGRE TB 463 Zero phase sequence overvoltage PTOV U> 
64R  CIGRE TB 463 Rotor ground detector (rotor earth fault) relay  Re< 
64S   Ground detector (100% stator earth fault [IWD:third harmonic, low frequency voltage injection])  R<, U03h 
67N  CIGRE TB 463 Directional earth fault PTOC I0>® 
81O  CIGRE TB 463 Over-frequency relay PTOF f> 
81U  CIGRE TB 463 Under-frequency relay PTUF f< 
87B  CIGRE TB 463 Bus Differential relay PDIF ΔI 
87B  IEEE C37.2 Differential bus bar protectionPDIF or PDIR Bus bar differential or Fault direction comparison 
87G  IEEE C37.2 Generator differential PDIF  
87G  CIGRE TB 463 Generator Differential relay PDIF ΔI 
87L  IEEE C37.2 Differential line PDIF  
87M  IEEE C37.2 Motor differential PDIF  
87N  IEEE C37.2 Restricted earth fault PDIF  
87P  IEEE C37.2 Phase comparison PDIF  
87T  CIGRE TB 463 Transformer Differential relay PDIF ΔI 
87T  IEEE C37.2 Differential transformer protectionPDIF PHAR Differential transformer Harmonic restraint 
AC  CIGRE TB 427 Access Control   
ACSI  IEC 61850 Abstract Communication Service Interface   
AEMO Australian Energy Market Operator Australia    
AES  CIGRE TB 427 Advanced Encryption System   
AFD  IEEE C37.2 Arc flash detector   
ANCR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Automation: Neutral Current Regulator control   
ARCO  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Automation: Reactive power control   
ARIS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Automation: Resistor control   
ASM  CIGRE TB 427 Automatic Software Management   
ATCC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Automation: tap changer controller   
AVCO  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Automation: Voltage control   
CALH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Alarm handling   
CBF Circuit Breaker FailCIGRE TB 431 see ‘circuit breaker failure protection’   
CC Coordination Center [IWD:CERT-CC] CIGRE TB 427    
CCGR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Cooling group control   
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team CIGRE TB 427    
CID Configured IED DescriptionIEC 61850 A file, the specific file extracted from the SCD file that contains all information available in SCL that is relevant to configure the specific IED.   
CILO  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Interlocking   
CLK  IEEE C37.2 Clock (or timing source in  IEEE Std C37.2)  GPS or IRIG receiver 
CMVP Cryptographic Module Validation Program CIGRE TB 427    
COMTRADE Common Format for Transient Data ExchangeIEEE C37.111    
CPNI Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure [IWD:UK] CIGRE TB 427    
CPOW  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Point-on-wave switching   
CSWI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Switch controller   
CSYN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Control: Synchronizer controller   
DC Data Confidentiality CIGRE TB 427    
DCCT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER economic dispatch parameters   
DCFData communications facility Australia (d) any data concentrator or intervening facility; and(e) power supply equipment for items (a) to (d) above. For the purposes of this definition, high voltage measurement transformers, transducers, together with the associated wiring, do not provide a data communication function.’   
DCHB  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Boiler   
DCHC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: CHP system controller   
DCIP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Reciprocating engine   
DCRP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER plant corporate characteristics at the ECP   
DCTS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Thermal storage   
DDRDigital Disturbance RecorderIEEE C37.2 Non fault disturbance recording (mainly analog)RDRE RADR RBDR generally of much longer duration that DFR and not necessarily related to a protection trip
DEXC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Excitation   
DFCL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Fuel cell controller   
DFLV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Fuel delivery system   
DFPM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Fuel processing module   
DFRDigital fault recordersCIGRE TB 424The modern DFR’s are highly accurate recording instruments providing sampled waveform and contact data using relatively high sampling rate (typically above 1 KHz). Their use in the analysis is quite appropriate since they provide recordings of the waveforms that were also “seen” by the protective relays [APB5:6]. The digital fault recording function can also be found inside digital protection relays, power quality monitors and IED’s.  
DFR Digital Fault RecorderIEEE C37.2 Fault recording (analog and binary signals)RDRE RADR RBDR generally maximum of a few seconds duration and initiated by a protection trip
DGEN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER unit generator   
DI Data Integrity CIGRE TB 427    
DiD Defense in Depth CIGRE TB 427    
DMZ Demilitarized Zone CIGRE TB 427    
DOPA  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER operational authority at the ECP   
DOPM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Operating mode at ECP   
DOPR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Operational characteristics at ECP   
DoS Denial of Service CIGRE TB 427    
DPRDigital Protective RelaysCIGRE TB 424The digital protective relay, also called a numeric relay by some manufacturers and resources, refers to a protective relay that uses an advanced microprocessor to analyze power system voltages and currents for the purpose of detection of faults in an electric power system.  
DPST  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Status information at the ECP   
DPVA  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Photovoltaics array characteristics   
DPVC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Photovoltaics array controller   
DPVM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Photovoltaics module ratings   
DRAT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER generator ratings   
DRAZ  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER advanced generator ratings   
DRCC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER supervisory control   
DRCS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER controller status   
DRCT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER controller characteristics   
DREX  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Excitation ratings   
DSCC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER energy and/or ancillary services schedule   
DSCH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: DER energy and/or ancillary services schedule   
DSFC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Speed/Frequency controller   
DSTK  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Fuel cell stack   
DTRC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Distributed Energy Resources: Tracking controller   
dZ/dt   Phase angle measuring (Out of step [IWD:pole slip]) relay  78
ENV Environmental data IEEE C37.2 Weather, ice, geomagnetic disturbances, earthquakes, etc.   
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute CIGRE TB 427    
ES-ISAC Electricity Sector --Information Sharing and Analysis Center CIGRE TB 427    
f<   Under-frequency relay  81U 
f>   Over-frequency relay  81O 
FAT Factory Acceptance Testing These tests shall prove functional operation of the SAS according to the specification(s) with the exception of simulated of primary plant connections.   
FCNT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Counter   
FCSD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Curve Shap Description   
FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [IWD:US] CIGRE TB 427    
FFIL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Generic filter   
FIPS Federal Information Processing Standards [IWD:US] CIGRE TB 427    
FIRST Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams CIGRE TB 427    
FLIM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Control function output limitation   
FPID  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: PID regulator   
FRMP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Ramp function   
FSEQ  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Sequencer   
FSPT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Set-point control function   
FXOT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Action at over threshold   
FXUT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Functional blocks: Action at under threshold   
GAPC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Generic References: Generic automatic process control   
GGIO  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Generic References: Generic process I/O   
GLOG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Generic References: Generic log   
GOOSE Generic Object Oriented Substation EventIEC 61850 a specific message sent as a consequence of a certain circumstance occurring in the substation detected by the publisher rather than a message sent in response to a request for information. This message is repeated at a decreasing rate, as distinct from a report issued once.   
GSAL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Generic References: Generic security application   
HBRG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Turbine – generator shaft bearing   
HCOM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Combinator   
HDAM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Hydropower dam   
HDLS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Dam leakage supervision   
HGPI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Gate position indicator   
HGTE  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Dam gate   
HITG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Intake gate   
HIZ High impedance fault detector IEEE C37.2 On grounded systems   
HJCL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Joint control   
HLKG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Leakage supervision   
HLVL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Water level indicator   
HMBR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Mechanical brake   
HMI Human Machine Interface IEEE C37.2 Displays for operator control   
HMI Human Machine Interface CIGRE TB 427    
HNDL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Needle control   
HNHD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Water net head data   
HOTP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Dam over-topping protection   
HRES  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Hydropower/water reservoir   
HSEQ  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Hydropower unit sequencer   
HSPD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Speed monitoring   
HST Historian IEEE C37.2 Stores data   
HUNT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Hydropower unit   
HWCL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Hydro: Water control   
I(U)>   Voltage controlled / dependant time overcurrent relay  51V 
I<   Field (over/under excitation) relay; loss of field  40
I>   AC inverse time overcurrent relay PTOC 51
I>   Instantaneous overcurrent relay PTOC 50
I>®   AC directional overcurrent relay PTOC + RDIR67
I0>®   Directional earth fault PTOC + RDIR67N 
I2  Reverse-phase or phase-balance current (-ve phase sequence) relay  46
I2  Machine or transformer thermal (thermal overload) relay  49
IARC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Archiving   
ICD IED Capability DescriptionIEC 61850 A file, which describes the total capability of the device including the data model for a specific type of application as a template that can then be instantiated during system engineering. It has a reference “TEMPLATE”   
ICT Information and Communication Technologies CIGRE TB 427    
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission CIGRE TB 427    
IEDIntelligent electronic devicesCIGRE TB 424The modern IED’s are available today for variety of applications ranging from simple stand alone controllers and dedicated data recording systems to pretty complex integrated devices for monitoring, control and protection of the entire substation bay. The main issue with IED’s, when used for the analysis, is the “open” communication architecture and data recording performance  
IED Intelligent Electronic Device CIGRE TB 427 any electronic device with communication capabilities that forms part of the SAS.  This includes electronic interfaces to primary plant (such as switchgear, transformers, capacitors, reactors, SVC, and FACTS) for operation control and status, instrument transformers with serial communications capability, protective relays, control equipment, gateways, SCADA equipment and operator interfaces.   
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers CIGRE TB 427    
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force CIGRE TB 427    
IHMI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Human machine interface   
IID Instantiated IED DescriptionIEC 61850 A file, an extract of the SCD file which describes the data model portion of an instance of an IED.  It has an instance name (i.e. not TEMPLATE) and hence is not the same as an ICD file.  It does not contain all the configuration of messages and hence is not the same as a CID file   
IM Identity Management CIGRE TB 427    
In  AC inverse time neutral overcurrent (zero phase sequence) relay  51N 
INL Idaho National Laboratory CIGRE TB 427    
IOU Independent Operated Utility CIGRE TB 427    
ISA The International Society of Automation CIGRE TB 427    
ISAF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Safety alarm function   
ISD Intelligent Substation Device  – see IED   
ISO International Organization for Standardization CIGRE TB 427    
IT Information Technology CIGRE TB 427    
ITCI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Telecontrol interface   
ITMI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Telemonitoring interface   
ITPC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Interfacing and Archiving: Teleprotection communication interfaces   
KFAN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Mechanical and non-electric primary equipment: Fan   
KFIL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Mechanical and non-electric primary equipment: Filter   
KPMP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Mechanical and non-electric primary equipment: Pump   
KTNK  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Mechanical and non-electric primary equipment: Tank   
KVLV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Mechanical and non-electric primary equipment: Valve control   
LAN Local Area Network the Ethernet network providing communications within the substation.   
LCCH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Physical communication channel supervision   
LGC Logic, scheme IEEE C37.2 For interlocking or remedial action schemes   
LGOS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: GOOSE subscription   
LLN0  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Logical node zero   
LNLogical node IEC 61850-7-4 Logical nodes   
LPHD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Physical device information   
LSVS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Sampled value subscription   
LTIM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Time management   
LTMS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Time master supervision   
LTRK  IEC 61850 Logical Node: System: Service tracking   
MAC Message Authentication Code or Media Access Control CIGRE TB 427    
MD Message Digest CIGRE TB 427    
MENV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Environmental information   
MET Substation metering IEEE C37.2 Energy, amps, volts, watts, vars, power factor, demand MMTR, MMXU  
MFLK  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Flicker measurement   
MFLW  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Flow measurements   
MFUL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Fuel characteristics   
MHAI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Harmonics or interharmonics   
MHAN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Non-phase-related harmonics or interharmonics   
MHET  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Heat measured values   
MHYD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Hydrological information   
MICS  IEC 61850 Model Implementation Conformance Statement   
MMDC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: DC measurement   
MMET  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Meteorological information   
MMTN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Metering   
MMTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Metering   
MMXN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Non-phase-related measurement   
MMXU  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Measurement   
MPRS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Pressure measurements   
MSMUG Microsoft Manufacturing Users Group CIGRE TB 427    
MSQI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Sequence and imbalance   
MSTA  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Metering and measurement: Metering statistics   
MUMerging Unit IEC 61850 IEC 60044-8 A device that converts an analogue measurement into IEC 61850 Sampled Values according to IEC 61850-9. This device may have conventional 1A/110V inputs or may use non conventional optical or Rogowski coil sensor technology.   
NERC North American Electric Reliability Corporation CIGRE TB 427    
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology CIGRE TB 427    
NRA Network Resource Availability CIGRE TB 427    
P<   Directional power (Low forward power) relay  32
-P>   Reverse power relay  32R 
PAS Publicly Available Specification CIGRE TB 427    
PBProcess bus IEC 61850 Part of the SAS communication network that handles bay-to-equipment signals, for example, switchgear open/closed status, trip/close commands, current and voltage measurement sampled values, plant condition monitoring signals. This bus may or may not be a separate physical communication network to the station bus.   
PDC Phasor data concentrator IEEE C37.2 Assembles and forwards PMU data   
PDIF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Differential   
PDIR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Directional comparison   
PDIS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Distance   
PDOP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Directional over power   
PDU Protocol Data Unit CIGRE TB 427    
PDUP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Directional under power   
PFRC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Rate of change of frequency   
PHAR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Harmonic restraint   
PHIZ  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Ground detector   
PICOM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Piece of Information for Communication   
PICS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement   
PIES Protection and Indication Equipment ScheduleAustralia specifies protection hardware and CT/VT requirements for a substation.   
PIOC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Instantaneous over current   
PIXIT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protocol Implementation eXtra Information for Testing   
PMRI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Motor restart inhibit   
PMSS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Motor starting time supervision   
PMUPhasor Measurement UnitsCIGRE TB 424A generic device that calculates phasors from voltage and/or current inputs [APB5:8].  
PMU Phasor measurement unit IEEE C37.2 Calculates and stores synchrophasors   
POPF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Over power factor   
PPAM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Phase angle measuring   
PQM Power quality monitor IEEE C37.2 RMS and frequency variations, transients, harmonics   
PRTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Rotor protection   
PSCH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Protection scheme   
PSDE  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Sensitive directional earthfault   
PSRC Power System Relaying Committee CIGRE TB 427    
PTEF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Transient earth fault   
PTHF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Thyristor protection   
PTOC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Time overcurrent   
PTOF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Overfrequency   
PTOV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Overvoltage   
PTRC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Protection trip conditioning   
PTTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Thermal overload   
PTUC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Undercurrent   
PTUF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Underfrequency   
PTUV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Undervoltage   
PUPF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Underpower factor   
PVOC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Voltage controlled time overcurrent   
PVPH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Volts per Hz   
PZSU  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection: Zero speed or underspeed   
QFVR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Frequency variation   
QITR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Current transient   
QIUB  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Current unbalance variation   
QVTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Voltage transient   
QVUB  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Voltage unbalance variation   
QVVR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power quality events: Voltage variation   
R<, U03h   Ground detector (100% stator earth fault [IWD:third harmonic, low frequency voltage injection])  64S 
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In Service CIGRE TB 427    
RADR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Disturbance recorder channel analogue   
RBAC Role Based Access Control CIGRE TB 427    
RBDR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Disturbance recorder channel binary   
RBRF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Breaker failure   
RDIR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Directional element   
RDRE  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Disturbance recorder function   
RDRS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Disturbance record handling   
Re<   Rotor ground detector (rotor earth fault) relay  64R 
RFC Request for Comment CIGRE TB 427    
RFLO  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Fault locator   
RIO Remote input /output device IEEE C37.2 Substation data repository   
RMXU  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Differential measurements   
RPSB  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Power swing detection/blocking   
RREC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Autoreclosing   
RSYN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Protection related functions: Synchronism-check   
RTURemote Terminal UnitsCIGRE TB 424The entire complement of devices, functional modules, and assemblies that are electrically interconnected to effect the remote station supervisory functions. The equipment includes the interface with the communication channel but does not include the interconnecting channel. During communication with a master station the remote station is the subordinate in the communication hierarchy [APB5:7]. The modern RTU can be a very sophisticated recording instrument that may have a recording performance of a DFR, and at the same time may be producing a variety of pre-calculated quantities. In addition, some advanced RTUs will provide an extensive SER and some limited digital protection relay functions. Due to the fact that RTUs are a part of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, the data is readily available for the analysis at the centralized location through a SCADA database  
RTU Remote Terminal Unit IEEE C37.2 Also serves as data concentrator   
SARC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Monitoring and diagnostics for arcs   
SAS Substation Automation System generally secondary systems incorporating the IEDs involved in protection, control, condition monitoring and SCADA of the substation employing communication systems rather than copper wires for signalling between the IEDs. Whilst this applies to any form of communication system, in particular it incorporates IEC 61850 technology.   
SAT Site Acceptance Testing designed to prove the installation and configuration of the SAS according to the specification(s), and that the SAS operates correctly in conjunction with the primary equipment.   
SBStation Bus IEC 61850 Part of the SAS communication network that handles bay-to-station level signals (SCADA traffic) and inter-bay protection communications. This bus may or may not be a separate physical communication network to the process bus.   
SCADASupervisory Control and Data AcquisitionCIGRE TB 424A system operating with coded signals over communication channels so as to provide control of RTU equipment. The supervisory system may be combined with a data acquisition system by adding the use of coded signals over communication channels to acquire information about the status of the RTU equipment for display or for recording functions  
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition     
SCBR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Circuit breaker Supervision   
SCD System Configuration DescriptionIEC 61850 A file, which contains the complete configuration of the SAS with every device, signal and parameter defined within it, as well as the communication network and the single line topology.   
SCL System Configuration LanguageIEC 61850-6 the system of XML files and engineering process used to manage the specification and implementation of IEC 61850 systems.   
SCSM Specific Communication Service Mapping CIGRE TB 427    
SED System Exchange DescriptionIEC 61850-6 A file, which contains the information of relevance to be exchanged between two SCL projects for the purpose of configuring information exchange between two subsystems that are handled as individual SCL projects.   
SERSequence of Event RecordersCIGRE TB 424The modern SER’s are complex recording instruments implemented today using programmable logic controllers (PLC’s) and analogue waveform data acquisition subsystems. The SER’s are capable of monitoring changes in the switching equipment status with high precision due to a high data sampling rate. Combined with measurements of analog signals, the SER’s can record the status change for a variety of controllers including the ones that are based on analog set points. Most of the SER’s can also be set to provide control function through a number of control outputs  
SER Sequence of events recorder IEEE C37.2 Time tagged event data   
SIMG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Insulation medium Supervision (gas)   
SIML  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Insulation medium Supervision (liquid)   
SLTC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Tap changer Supervision   
SMV Sampled Measured Value CIGRE TB 427    
SOESequence-of-events functionCIGRE TB 424The capability of a supervisory system to recognize each predefined event, associate a time of occurrence with each event, and present the event data in order of occurrence of the events  
SOPM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Supervision of operating mechanism   
SPDC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Monitoring and diagnostics for partial discharges   
SPTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Power transformer Supervision   
SSD System Specification DescriptionIEC 61850-6 A file, which defines the substation primary plant and secondary system functional requirements and relationships.   
SSL Secure Socket Layer CIGRE TB 427    
SSWI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Circuit switch Supervision   
STMP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Temperature Supervision   
SVBR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Supervision and monitoring: Vibration Supervision   
TANG  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Angle   
TAXD  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Axial displacement   
TCM Trip circuit monitor IEEE C37.2    
TCTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Current transformer   
TDST  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Distance   
TFLW  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Liquid flow   
TFRQ  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Frequency   
TGSN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Generic sensor   
THUM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Humidity   
TISP The Infrastructure Security Partnership CIGRE TB 427    
TissueTechnical IssueIEC 61850 Technical issues relating to problems as raised by any user and their resolutions, managed by tissuesgroup@ucausersgroup.org.   
TLEV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Level sensor   
TLS Transport Layer Security CIGRE TB 427    
TLVL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Media level   
TMGF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Magnetic field   
TMVM  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Movement sensor   
TPOS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Position indicator   
TPRS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Pressure sensor   
TRE Timely Response to Event CIGRE TB 427    
TRTN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Rotation transmitter   
TSND  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Sound pressure sensor   
TTMP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Temperature sensor   
TTNS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Mechanical tension / stress   
TVBR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Vibration sensor   
TVTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Voltage transformer   
TWPH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Instrument transformers and sensors: Water acidity   
U/f   Over-excitation (Volts per Hertz) relay  24
U<   Under-voltage relay PTUV 27
U>   Overvoltage relay PTOV 59
U>   Zero phase sequence overvoltage PTOV 59N 
UC Use Control CIGRE TB 427    
VLAN Virtual Local Area network CIGRE TB 427    
VPN Virtual Private network CIGRE TB 427    
VSL Violation Severity Levels CIGRE TB 427    
WALG  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine analogue log information   
WALM  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind power plant alarm information   
WAPC  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind power plant active power control information   
WCNV  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine converter information   
WCON  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine condition monitoring information   
WGEN  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine generator information   
WMET  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind power plant meteorological information   
WNAC  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine nacelle information   
WREP  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine report information   
WROT  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine rotor information   
WRPC  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind power plant reactive power control information   
WSLG  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine state log information   
WTOW  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine tower information   
WTRF  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine transformer information   
WTRM  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine transmission information   
WTUR  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine general information   
WYAW  IEC61400-25-4 Logical Node: Wind: Wind turbine yawing information   
X<   Under-current or under-power relay  37
XCBR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Switchgear: Circuit breaker   
XFUS  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Switchgear: Fuse   
XML eXtensible Mark Up Language a structured text file used for defining information relevant to the application in a form recognised by all devices using the particular schema definition   
XSWI  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Switchgear: Circuit switch   
YEFN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power transformers: Earth fault neutralizer (Petersen coil)   
YLTC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power transformers: Tap changer   
YPSH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power transformers: Power shunt   
YPTR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power transformers: Power transformer   
Z<   Distance (under impedance) relay PDIS 21
ZAXN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Auxiliary network   
ZBAT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Battery   
ZBSH  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Bushing   
ZBTC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Battery Charger   
ZCAB  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Power cable   
ZCAP  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Capacitor bank   
ZCON  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Converter   
ZGEN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Generator   
ZGIL  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Gas insulated line   
ZINV  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Inverter   
ZLIN  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Power overhead line   
ZMOT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Motor   
ZRCT  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Rectifier   
ZREA  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Reactor   
ZRES  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Resistor   
ZRRC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Rotating reactive component   
ZSAR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Surge arrestor   
ZSCR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Semi-conductor controlled rectifier   
ZSMC  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Synchronous machine   
ZTCF  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Thyristor controlled frequency converter   
ZTCR  IEC 61850 Logical Node: Power system equipment: Thyristor controlled reactive component   
ΔI   Bus Differential relay PDIF 87B 
ΔI   Generator Differential relay PDIF 87G 
ΔI   Transformer Differential relay PDIF 87T 
ΔU   Voltage or current balance (fuse failure) relay  60
 Directional element IEEE C37.2 Directional element for modelling directed protection with Pxyz nodes RDIR  
 Fault Locator IEEE C37.2 Calculates the location of the fault RFLO  
 Alarm condition CIGRE TB 424A predefined change in the state or condition of equipment or the failure of equipment to respond correctly. Indication may be audible or visual, or both  
 Alarm SCADA function CIGRE TB 424The capability of a supervisory system to accomplish a predefined action in response to an alarm condition  
 Asset CIGRE TB 427 A useful or valuable quality, person, or thing; an advantage or resource.   
 Audit CIGRE TB 427 1. An independent examination of processes and data to assess compliance with specifications, standards, contractual agreements or other criteria.  2. An assessment of data logs and traces to determine that a cyber security intrusion has occurred.   
 Authentication CIGRE TB 427 The process by which you prove that you are eligible to join a network. A challenge process to prove (validate) the identification provided; e.g., a fingerprint (identification) to access a computer via a biometric device (authentication). The biometric device authenticates the identity of the fingerprint.   
 Authenticator CIGRE TB 427 An entity that controls the access gate   
 Authorization CIGRE TB 427 Access privileges granted to an entity; conveys an “official” sanction to perform a security function or activity.   
 Authorizer CIGRE TB 427 An entity that grants privileges   
 AvailabilityIEC 60870-4the ability of a unit or a system to perform its required function at any given moment  
 AvailabilityCIGRE TB 427 Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information   
 back-tripping CIGRE TB 431 To effect the high-speed tripping of all circuit-breakers selected to a particular busbar and to adjacent busbars   
 back-up protection CIGRE TB 431 Protection which is intended to operate when a system fault is not cleared, or abnormal condition not detected, in the required time because of failure or inability of other protection to operate or failure of the appropriate circuit breaker(s) to trip   
 bay CIGRE TB 431 The part of a substation within which the switchgear and control gear relating to a given circuit is contained   
 bay unit CIGRE TB 431 A bay unit within a numerical busbar and breaker-failure protection is the interface between the protection and the primary system process comprising the main CTs, disconnectors and circuit-breaker and performs the associated data acquisition, pre-processing and control functions. It also provides the electrical insulation between the primary system and the internal electronics of the protection.   
 BBP CIGRE TB 431 see ‘busbar protection’   
 Blackout CIGRE TB 427 An unplanned and uncontrolled interruption of a major part of the power system, leaving a large number of consumers without electricity. A “major” part of the power system includes at least a portion of the transmission network; i.e., an interruption in a large distribution network is not characterized as a blackout.   
 blind spot CIGRE TB 431 see ‘dead zone’   
 blind zone CIGRE TB 431 see ‘dead zone’   
 breaker failure protection (USA) CIGRE TB 431 see ‘circuit breaker failure protection’   
 burden CIGRE TB 431 (of an instrument transformer) The impedance of the secondary circuit   
 bus coupler circuit-breaker CIGRE TB 431 In a substation a circuit-breaker which is located between two busbars and which permits the busbars to be coupled; it may be associated with selectors in case of more than two busbars   
 bus image CIGRE TB 431 see ‘dynamic bus replica’   
 bus mimic CIGRE TB 431 see ‘dynamic bus replica’   
 bus section circuit-breaker CIGRE TB 431 In a substation a circuit-breaker which is located between two busbar sections of the same bar and which permits two sections to be coupled   
 busbar CIGRE TB 431 A low impedance conductor to which several electric circuits can be separately connected   
 busbar blocking scheme CIGRE TB 431 A busbar protection scheme utilizing non-directional and/or directional overcurrent relays or distance relays to provide a simple busbar protection at distribution substations   
 busbar protection CIGRE TB 431 Protection intended to operate to initiate fault clearance on a busbar   
 busbar section CIGRE TB 431 The part of a busbar located between switching devices as circuit breakers or disconnectors put in series or between a switching device and the end of the busbar   
 busbar section disconnector CIGRE TB 431 A disconnector which is connected in series between two busbar sections, in order to disconnect them from each other   
 busbars CIGRE TB 431 In a substation, the busbar assembly necessary to make a common connection for several circuits   
 bus-tie circuit-breaker CIGRE TB 431 see bus coupler and bus section circuit-breaker   
 central unit CIGRE TB 431 The central unit within a numerical busbar and breaker-failure protection is the system manager typically used for system configuration, operating parameters, busbar replica, assignment of bays, system synchronization, communications control etc.   
 check zone CIGRE TB 431 The non-selective part of a multi-zone busbar protection generally supervising current flow at the terminals of the complete station. Note: Tripping from the busbar protection is conditional on operation of both the check and a discriminating zone.   
 circuit-breaker failure protection CIGRE TB 431 A protection which is designed to clear a system fault by initiating tripping of other circuit breaker(s) in the case of failure to trip of the appropriate circuit breaker   
 circulating current differential  see high impedance differential   
 Client/server IEC 61850 The client is the recipient of the information. The server is the provider of the information.   
 ComponentCIGRE TB 424A component is a device which performs a major operating function, and which is regarded as an entity when analyzing data.  
 Confidentiality CIGRE TB 427 Mechanisms that protect against the inadvertent or malicious disclosure of sensitive information   
 Control architecture CIGRE TB 427 “Architecture” denotes the organizational dimension (hierarchical, functional and spatial) of the control system rather than the technological solutions (information and communication hardware, protocols, software) supporting it.   
 Control system CIGRE TB 427 A device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems.   
 Corporate network  The entire corporate network used for all business systems, excluding the automation network, and excluding real-time reporting from the SAS.   
 Criticality CIGRE TB 427 The extent the failure of the considered function has the potential to lead to a major outage.   
 Cryptography CIGRE TB 427 The study of making and breaking encryption algorithms   
 Cyber security CIGRE TB 427 Measures taken to electronically and digitally protect computers and computer networks from accidental or malicious harm.   
 Cyber-security CIGRE TB 427 as defined by Webster Dictionary “measures taken to protect a computer or computer system (as on the Internet) against unauthorized access or attack.”   
 Data at Rest CIGRE TB 427 Information stored in any repository including memory registers of an IED.   
 Data object IEC 61850-7-4 Data objects as defined in IEC 61850-7-4   
 dead zone CIGRE TB 431 On bus sections and bus couplers where current transformer(s) have only been installed on one side of the circuit breaker a protection ‘blind zone’ or ‘blind spot’ will exist between the circuit breaker and it’s associated CT(s) for which faults will not be cleared.   
 decentralized BBP CIGRE TB 431 A numerical busbar protection system in which the bay units can be located close to the switchgear with short connections to current transformers, circuit-breakers, disconnectors and other bay protection devices   
 Demilitarized Zone CIGRE TB 427 (DMZ) A computer host or small network inserted as a “neutral zone” between a private network and a public network[IWD:41].   
 direct transfer trip CIGRE TB 431 see ‘intertripping’   
 discriminating zone CIGRE TB 431 The selective part of a multi-zone busbar protection, generally supervising current flow into and out of a single section of busbar   
 distributed BBP CIGRE TB 431 see ‘decentralized BBP’   
 dynamic bus replica / bus image / bus mimic/ disconnector replica / zone selection CIGRE TB 431 Utilizing built-in programmable logic the dynamic bus replica provides the capability to include and exclude currents dynamically from the differential zone without the need for external auxiliary relays. This enables the busbar protection to ‘mimic’ the actual busbar configuration whilst avoiding the switching of CT circuits and trip circuits   
 End point security CIGRE TB 427 An information security concept that basically means that each device (end-point) is responsible for its own security.   
 end zone protection CIGRE TB 431 Applies to feeder bays when current transformers are mounted on one side of the circuit breaker only, which results in a blind zone, since BBP alone cannot clear this fault.   
 Entity CIGRE TB 427 An individual (person), organization, device or process.   
 FailureCIGRE TB 424One component fails to perform its required function.  
 fault clearance CIGRE TB 431 The disconnection from the electrical system of a defective item, by automatic or manual operations, in order to maintain or restore supply.   
 fault clearance time CIGRE TB 431 the time interval between the occurrence of a fault and the fault clearance.   
 feeder bay CIGRE TB 431 In a substation, the bay relating to a feeder or a link to a transformer, a generator or another substation   
 feeder circuit breaker CIGRE TB 431 In a substation, a circuit breaker which is located within a feeder bay and through which a feeder can be energized   
 feeder disconnector CIGRE TB 431 A disconnector which is located in series at the end of a feeder, within a substation bay, in order to isolate the feeder from the system   
 Gateway  Device that aggregates SAS data for the SCADA Master Station and may provide protocol conversion.   
 Hardware acceleration CIGRE TB 427 The use of hardware to perform some function faster than is possible in software running on the general purpose CPU. Examples of hardware acceleration include instructions for complex operations in CPUs.   
 Hash function CIGRE TB 427 Any well-defined procedure or mathematical function which converts a large, possibly variable-sized amount of data into a small datum, usually a single integer that may serve as an index into an array. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, hash sums, or simply hashes.   
 high impedance differential protection CIGRE TB 431 Current differential protection using a current differential relay whose impedance is high compared with the impedance of the secondary circuit of the saturated current transformer   
 ICT functions CIGRE TB 427 Functions based on information and communication technology needed for power system observability and controllability. In the context of power systems, they encompass protection, monitoring, control operator decision support, system management and coordination.   
 Identification CIGRE TB 427 The process of recognizing an entity (human or device). Identification could be a password, a token or a fingerprint.   
 Incident response CIGRE TB 427 The set of processes used to minimize the impact of security incidents on substation and power system operations.   
 Information assurance CIGRE TB 427 See information security   
 Information securityISO/IEC 27000preservation of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information  
 Information security CIGRE TB 427 Mechanisms that deal with several different “trust” aspects of information as it applies to all aspects of safeguarding or protecting information or data, in whatever form. Another common term is information assurance.   
 information security. CIGRE TB 427    
 In-Service stateCIGRE TB 424The component or unit is energized and fully connected to the system  
 Integrity CIGRE TB 427 The property that sensitive data has not been modified or deleted in an unauthorized and undetected manner.   
 intertripping CIGRE TB 431 The tripping of circuit-breaker(s) by signals initiated from protection at a remote location independent of the state of the local protection   
 low impedance differential protection CIGRE TB 431 Current differential protection using a current differential relay whose impedance is not high compared with the impedance of the secondary circuit of a saturated current transformer.   
 main busbar CIGRE TB 431 In a double, (or triple) busbar substation, any busbar which is used under normal conditions main protection [IWD:2] Protection expected to have a high priority in initiating fault clearance or an action to terminate an abnormal condition in a power system. Note: For a given item of plant, two or more main protections may be provided.   
 Message protection CIGRE TB 427 A process to ensure that once you have joined the network, you can communicate without risk of interception, modification, or other security risks   
 Monitoring CIGRE TB 427 The continuous observation of a device or system with respect to its state or any changes that may occur over time, using a measuring device of some sort.   
 Multicast (GOOSE) CIGRE TB 427 A transmission mode in which a single message is sent to multiple network destinations (i.e., one-to-many).  Note, from Wikipedia: IP Multicast is a method of forwarding IP datagrams to a group of interested receivers.   
 Non-repudiation CIGRE TB 427 A service that is used to provide proof of the integrity and origin of data in such a way that the integrity and origin can be verified by a third party as having originated from a specific entity in possession of the private key of the originator.   
 numeric protection CIGRE TB 431 A numeric protection performs analogue to digital conversion on samples of the secondary voltage and/or current signals and uses numerical methods to determine relay operation on-load transfer With two busbar disconnectors simultaneously closed in one feeder bay   
 Observability CIGRE TB 427 Property of a system which implies that its initial state can be determined from input and output variables, which are observed within a finite time interval.   
 Outage OccurrenceCIGRE TB 424One component or one unit changes from the service state to the outage state.  
 Outage stateCIGRE TB 424The component or unit is not in the in-service state, that is, it is partially or fully isolated from the system.  
 Password CIGRE TB 427 A string of characters (letters, numbers, and other symbols) used to authenticate an identity or to verify access authorization.   
 peripheral unit CIGRE TB 431 see ‘bay unit’   
 Phishing CIGRE TB 427 A form of criminal activity using social engineering techniques. It is characterized by attempts to fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business in an apparently official electronic communication. Phishing is typically done using email or an instant message. The term phishing arises from the use of increasingly sophisticated lures to “fish” for users’ financial information and passwords.   
 Policy management CIGRE TB 427 The set of processes used to define and enforce an organizational strategy including organization standards, procedures and guidelines related to   
 primary protection CIGRE TB 431 (USA) see ‘main protection’   
 Privacy (Data privacy) CIGRE TB 427 The evolving relationship between technology and the legal right to, or public expectation of privacy in, the collection and sharing of data about one’s self. Privacy concerns exist wherever uniquely identifiable data relating to a person or persons are collected and stored, in digital form or otherwise. In some cases these concerns refer to how data is collected, stored, and associated. In other cases the issue is who is given access to information. Other issues includes whether an individual has any ownership rights to data about them, and/or the right to view, verify, and challenge that information. The service used to prevent the content of messages from being read by other than the intended recipients. {Note: in this context, this technical brochure uses the term “confidentiality” instead of privacy.   
 protected zone CIGRE TB 431 The portion of a power system protected by a given protection system or a part of that protection system. The boundary of the protected zone is defined by the position of the current transformers in order to identify the location of the fault. The position of the circuit breakers is chosen in order to facilitate the isolation of the fault.   
 Protection (V)LAN  The part of the station communications network used for protection signalling between protection IEDs.   
 protection system CIGRE TB 431 An arrangement of one or more protection equipments, and other devices intended to perform one or more specified protection functions   
 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) CIGRE TB 427 1. Information that is delivered as a unit among peer entities of a network and that may contain control information, address information, or data. 2. In layered systems, a unit of data that is specified in a protocol of a given layer and that consists of protocol-control information of the given layer and possibly user data of that layer.   
 Proxy server CIGRE TB 427 A process providing a cache of items available on other servers which are presumably slower or more expensive to access.   
 Publisher/subscriber IEC 61850 Publishers provide information to the network generally independently of what devices may need to use the information. Subscribers take information off the network as information arrives on the network   
 rated burden CIGRE TB 431 The value of the burden upon which the accuracy requirements of a specification are based rating The nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the designation of a relay; the nominal value usually corresponds to the CT and VT secondary ratings   
 Red-black separation concept CIGRE TB 427 Refers to the careful segregation in cryptographic systems of signals that contain sensitive or classified plaintext information (RED signals) from those that carry encrypted information, or cipher text (BLACK signals).   
 redundancy CIGRE TB 431 The design practice of replicating the sources of a function so that the function remains available after the failure of one or more items   
 Refurbishment: CIGRE TB 448 System Level (Bay or Substation) is the process of major maintenance or minor repair to the existing infrastructure with the intention of improving the remaining lifetime at a minimum cost. Example: Replacement of a number of protective relays within one or more bay while retaining the existing cubicles.   
 ReliabilityIEC 60870-4a measure of an equipment or a system to perform its intended function under  specified conditions for a specific period of time  
 Repair: CIGRE TB 448 Device Level restoring of the device functionality after failure   
 Replacement: CIGRE TB 448 Device Level : replacing of a device by one of a similar type or functional equivalent.   
 Replacement: CIGRE TB 448 System Level (Bay or Substation) is the process of replacing the majority of the existing infrastructure with the intention of improving the remaining lifetime and the functionality. Example: replacement of a complete protection cubicle retaining the interfaces to the primary system, i.e. CT’s, VT’s.   
 Retrofit: CIGRE TB 448 System Level (Bay or Substation) refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems with the intention of improving the functional level at a minimum cost. Example: replacing old electromechanical relays by new digital relays (existing cubicles are fitted with new digital relays) often using the same housing.   
 Revocation CIGRE TB 427 The process by which privileges and access rights are removed (cancelled or annulled)   
 Revoked CIGRE TB 427 The state of being cancelled or annulled.   
 Risk management CIGRE TB 427 Establishment and maintenance of security processes to mitigate the consequences of a vulnerability that can be exploited.   
 SafetyIEC 60870-4its ability to avoid placing the system in a potentially dangerous or unstable situation  
 SCADA WAN  The telecommunications network providing communication paths between stations and between the station communication network  and the SCADA Master Station. The SCADA WAN boundary ends at the WAN connection point on the station router/firewall.   
 sectionaliser CIGRE TB 431 see ‘switched busbar circuit-breaker’   
 Security its ability to avoid intrusion and disturbances from the outside world  
 Security CIGRE TB 427 See IEEE Dictionary definitions for software and computer resources, but for this technical brochure exclude the definition for the degree of certainty that a relay or relay system will not operate incorrectly. Note: in this technical brochure the term security should always be restricted to the context of cyber security.   
 sensitivity CIGRE TB 431 The minimum value of the energizing quantity(ies) required to just cause operation of a relay under specified conditions   
 setting CIGRE TB 431 The limiting value of a ‘characteristic’ or ‘energizing’ quantity at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions.   
 stability CIGRE TB 431 The quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions other than those for which it is specifically designed to operate   
 StateCIGRE TB 424A component or unit state is a particular condition or status of a component or a unit, which is important for outage reporting purposes  
 static relay CIGRE TB 431 An electrical relay in which the designed response is developed by electronic, magnetic, optical or other components without mechanical motion.   
 Station Communication Network  The entire Ethernet LAN within a station. The station communications network boundary is at WAN network connection points on the station’s router/firewall.   
 Supervisory (V)LAN  The part of the station communications network used for the implementation of automation functions and SCADA.   
 Supplicant CIGRE TB 427 An entity that wants to have access.   
 switched busbar circuit-breaker CIGRE TB 431 In a substation a circuit-breaker, connected in series within a busbar between two busbar sections.   
 SynchrophasorsCIGRE TB 424A phasor calculated from data samples using a standard time signal as the reference for the measurement. In this case, the phasors from remote sites have a defined common phase relationship  
 Telecom infrastructure  This term is used to designate the wide area communication network of Integral Energy that is used to provide the information exchange between different substations as well as to the Master Stations.   
 Terminal (Bay)CIGRE TB 424A functional facility (substation, generating station or load centre) includes components such as bus sections, circuit breakers and protection systems, and where transmission units terminate.  
 Threat CIGRE TB 427 Any indication, circumstance or event with the potential to disrupt or destroy critical infrastructure or any element thereof, including accidents, natural hazards as well as deliberate attacks.   
 through fault current CIGRE TB 431 A current due to a power system fault external to that part of the section protected by the given protection and which flows through the protected section   
 transfer busbar CIGRE TB 431 A back-up busbar to which any circuit can be connected independently of its bay equipment, (circuit-breaker, instrument transformer) the control of this circuit being ensured by another specific bay, available for any circuit.   
 transfer tripping CIGRE TB 431 see ‘intertripping’   
 Trust CIGRE TB 427 An attribute of an entity that is relied upon to a specified extent to exhibit an expected behavior   
 Trustworthiness CIGRE TB 427 An attribute or trait of the system which causes it to be deserving of trust (see definition of trust) and confidence   
 UnitCIGRE TB 424A unit is a group of interconnected components that can be isolated from the system as a unit to clear a fault on any of the components in the group.  
 UpgradeCIGRE TB 448 Device Level improving of the device functionality or performance (firmware, software or hardware)   
 Vulnerability CIGRE TB 427 An expression of the system’s lack of ability or reduced ability to withstand an unwanted situation, limit the consequences, and to recover and stabilize after the occurrence of the situation, where an unwanted situation is a situation with real or potential death or injury of people or loss of economic value.   
 Wi-Fi CIGRE TB 427 An industry standard for products based on IEEE 802.11 as defined by the Wi-Fi alliance – an industry consortium   
 zone selection CIGRE TB 431 see ‘dynamic bus replica’   
 

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